Parchman Penitentiary - Early 1900s
Mississippi Governor James Vardaman, an avowed racist, conceived Parchman Penitentiary as a “reform project.” His goal was to create a state-run penal farm which led to the establishment of Parchman Prison Farm, which eventually became notorious as one of the most racist, violent, and brutal prisons in America, in 1904.
For further reading and research, see also:
Worse than Slavery: Parchman Farm and the Ordeal of Jim Crow Justice David M. Oshinsky. [book link]
Down on Parchman Farm: The Great Prison in the Mississippi Delta by Williams Banks Taylor. [book link]
Prison Songs (Historical Recordings From Parchman Farm 1947-48), Vol. 1: Murderous Home by Alan Lomax and various artists. [recording link]